Production and distribution of 30.000 Improved Energy Saving Stoves for the Somali Refugees’ Camps

Project location: KENYA, Somali Refugee Camps of Dadaab
Project start date: September 2009 - Project end date: June 2010
Project number: 2009-38
Beneficiary: UNHCR

Final Report

The "Production and distribution of 30.000 improved energy saving stoves for the Somali Refugees in Daadab camp in Kenya" project funded by Fondazione Nando Peretti started in June 2010.
The first phase of the project was devoted to the acquisition of raw material needed for the production of the energy stoves as per the process described hereinafter.
The15.000 Maendeleo Portable Stoves were produced and delivered to the selected refugee camp.
Since it was not possible to issue stoves to every refugee, beneficiaries including refugees and host community members were jointly identified by Refugee leaders together with Field Staff depending on need and vulnerability. This was done in line with UNHCR commitment to the principle of participation by consulting refugees on decisions that affect their lives.
Being the average family size in Daadab 5 persons, the distribution of the 15.000 energy stoves translates into around 75.000 people benefiting of the distribution.
The stoves will save 50% of the firewood needs and will also reduce the level of degradation around the camps.
The distribution was followed by a proper training and demonstration session where households were thought of to use and maintain the distributed items. 15.000 families in the Dadaab camp are currently using the energy saving stoves purchased by UNHCR thanks to the donation received by Foundation Nando Peretti.
Stove Making Process
The main Fuel Efficient Stoves (FES) being promoted in Dadaab Refugee Camps are popularly known as Maendeleo Portable Stoves (MPS). The Maendeleo Portable Stove is made of a fired ceramic liner and metal cladding. The two components are assembled together using vermiculite (insulation) or any other bad conductor of heat materials and ordinary cement.
The Maendeleo Portable Stove was designed in late 1980s by Kenyan and German experts with financial support from GTZ Special Energy Project. The stove was subjected to rigorous laboratory and field testing by the experts before mass production by individuals and groups. The field tests were carried out in the 8 Provinces of Kenya while the laboratory tests were done at Kenyatta University's Appropriate Technology Centre. The Maendeleo Portable Stove is now widely used in Kenya by both rural and poor urban people because of its many advantages such as:
• Firewood efficiency of about 30% over the open fire place.
• Safety - can be handled with bare hand after long hours of cooking.
• Aesthetically appealing and user friendly
• Durability - has a life span of over four years if properly handled
• Cooks faster than 3 stone fire-places.
• Emits less smoke if properly used
• Portability - can be moved from place to place.
• Uses different types dry biomass materials
• Do not require special or spacious cooking place
• Can accommodate different cooking pots for different family sizes

It is one of the most ideal stoves for both Emergency and Care and Maintenance Refugee situations. Production of the stove was also introduced in Goma, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) for the Rwandese Refugees.
Stoves Production
A reasonable Stoves Production Unit is capable of producing about 2,000 complete Maendeleo Portable Stoves per month. The tools needed for stoves production are simple, relatively cheap and readily available in most hardware shops.
Metal Claddings
These are made out of old (used) tar drum sheets, tar drum bottoms or any other medium (soft) gauge metal sheet. Fabrication of the claddings is done using simple tools such as chisels, hammers and railings. It is done by skilled artisans. Production process is as shown below.
Ceramic Liners
These are made of pottery clay and sand. It is a delicate process that requires care at all levels. It is done by skilled potters or artisans. The moulded ceramic liners are allowed to dry for a period of 7 - 14 days before they are fired in kilns using firewood. The drying period depends on weather and clay type. The production process is as shown in the pictures attached.
Assembling Maendeleo Portable Stoves
The fired ceramic liner is assembled into a metal cladding using vermiculite (insulation) or any other bad conductor of heat and ordinary cement. The stove is allowed to dry for a period of a day or two before it is painted with gloss black paint to give it a clean aesthetic look. The paint also protects the metal claddings from rust.
The Maendeleo Portable Stove is made of a fired ceramic liner which is assembled into a metal cladding using vermiculite and cement.
Using the Maendeleo Portable Stove
The Maendeleo Portable Stove can use any type of dry biomass material as cooking fuel.
UNHCR's environmental policy deals with refugee and returnee-related environmental problems during all phases of refugee assistance, i.e. during the three critical situation in which UNHCR works every day: 1. emergency phase; 2. care-and-maintenance phase; 3. durable solutions phase, which can include such activities as environmental rehabilitation of the asylum country's territory after repatriation and/or address, environmental concerns related to the integration of refugees in the host country, or the reintegration of returnees in their home country.
Environmental problems confronting UNHCR, refugees - returnees and local populations can vary from one place to another according to the area's climate, its physical setting and the prevailing socio-economic conditions. Environmental issues cross many sectors and should therefore be addressed wherever possible in the entire planning and management process. To assist with this, a small number of key principles have been identified which, as experience shows if applied, will help reduce the impact of refugees and returnees on the environment overall. These principles are: an integrated approach; prevention before cure; cost-effectiveness and net benefit maximization and the local participation.

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