Lighting System for the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Project location: ITALY, Rome
Project start date: June 2010 - Project end date: December 2010
Project number: 2010-15
Beneficiary: Basilica Papale di San Paolo fuori le Mura

The work on the new lighting system for the four lateral naves of the Papal Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls was concluded on schedule on December 15th 2010. Subsequently, on December 17th and January 21st 2011, two inspections were carried out during the course of which both the Basilica staff and the project supervisors were able to appreciate the results. They were thus able to sign off their approval for the work which was managed with professionalism and competence.
This Basilica, dedicated to the Apostle Paul, can now be seen by its numerous visitors in quite a different light. Its beauty and elegance can now be better appreciated thanks to the skilled lighting work which serves to highlight the artistic and architectural features of the lateral naves.
The Basilica is, above all, a building which defines and encompasses a sacred space. The lighting work, in compliance with the requirements specified by the Episcopal Commission and the regulation UNI 10380, respects the fact that the church is characterised by three closely inter-related dimensions: the symbolic, the liturgical and the architectural. Through a carefully studied use of artificial light which, wherever possible, blends with the natural light, this lighting project has, on the one hand, a very functional purpose, but on the other, highlights the symbolic value of the various spaces and structural elements.
Taking into account the architectural and spatial structures of the imposing lateral naves of this Roman Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls, the first important evaluation was to decide the colour temperature of the light. This was done bearing in mind, first of all, the visual comfort and efficiency for visitors and secondly, the functionality, the aesthetic effect and the type of atmosphere that we wished to create. Particular attention was paid to the question of respecting the important chromatic, artistic and architectural elements of the area, with special attention to the climate of religious contemplation which these structures and works of art must always maintain within this sacred space.
It was decided that for this project a particular type of lighting should be used (HID metal halide and Super Led lamps) with the added aim of saving energy and maintenance costs, which are partially dependent on the life expectancy of the lamps themselves.


The project was drawn up with three main goals in mind: the illumination of the architectural and decorative features within the lateral naves, a ‘dedicated' lighting to allow overall visual comfort for those taking part in liturgies and visits and finally, the least possible visibility of the lighting units.
Going further into details, the project focused on two specific areas of illumination: the floor of the two external lateral naves, achieved by direct lighting with a half group of lamps positioned close to the large windows, and the ceiling, directly lit through the use of groups of Led lights positioned on the capitals of the columns and on the window ledges.
For this project the use of custom designed lights featuring the latest Led technology was chosen for the following advantageous reasons:
• Life expectancy of LED high emission lights, 50'000/60'000 hour life span
• Significant reduction of maintenance costs
• High energy output (up to 120 Lm/1W)
• Clean light free from any IR or UV components
• High level of chromatic performance 75-80
• Facility of achieving efficient optics
• Flexibility for installation of light fittings
• Saturated colours with enhancement of space and volume
• Robust mechanical structure and resilience to humidity and vibrations
• Maximum safety guaranteed by low level tension (normally between 3 e 24 Vdc)
• Constant and continuous energy feed, supplied through electronic switching
• Instant ignition from low temperatures (up to -40°C) to full efficiency
• Absence of mercury

The installation of the lighting system was carried out with the following method:
Internal lateral naves
A pair of F33 Led projectors, fed by a group of constant current Drivers, was placed on each of the internal capitals above the 80 columns. For each column the electrical supply is protected by an appropriate amp fuse. On the capitals of the remaining 8 columns of the internal naves (closest to the walls) a single F33 Led projector was installed, again fed by a group of Drivers and protected by fuses,
Each projector was covered by a lamp shade placed underneath the light fitting in order to conceal the Led elements from view for visitors looking up from below
The pointing of the individual lights was carried out using the so-called crossed band technique in order to minimise the shadows created by the vertical development of the coffered ceiling. The angle of the lights was adjusted in order to focus on the famous collection of medallions featuring portraits of all the Popes which are situated along the upper part of the walls.
In total, the number of projectors installed for the lighting of the ceiling along the internal lateral naves is 168, fed by 500mA Driver switching interconnected by multi-polar M12 connectors.
The technical characteristics of the individual projectors are the following:
Linear projector Led F33 with a custom designed directional fitting. The system is composed of 16 per 1W Led, with 12 whites and 4 ambers. The temperature of the white colour can be controlled in a linear way (3.200 ° K ÷ 5.500 ° K). 16 different types of white can be selected. Made of cast aluminium and steel. Fed by 60-260Vac - Power 16W. Pre-wired electronic feed. Light rotation 360° horizontal, 180° vertical. Class II isolation. Beam opening 40°. Level of protection IP65. Brand ENEC. Measurements in mm. 330m x 78 x 56.
External lateral naves
A pair of F33 Led projectors, fed by a group of constant current Drivers, was placed on each of the internal capitals above the 40 columns. On each column the electrical supply is protected by an appropriate amp fuse. On the capitals of the remaining 4 columns of the internal naves (closest to the walls) a single F33 Led projector was installed, again fed by groups of Drivers and protected by fuses.,
Each projector was covered by a lamp shade placed underneath the light fitting in order to conceal the Led elements from view for visitors looking up from below.
On each of the 20 window frames, exploiting the flat surface, three Led lights were installed, two F33 models and one F100-66, interlaced through the use of M12 connectors with 500mA Driver switching. The electrical supply of the light groups is protected by appropriate amp fuses.
This composite solution was adopted in order to have the greatest degree of flexibility in directing the lighting units and illuminating the ceiling. In fact, given the particular positioning of the window frames, in between each pair of columns, by using the three projectors of differing intensity, we were able to illuminate the double surface without causing shadows and create a harmonious illumination with the use of the crossed band technique.
In total, the number of projectors installed for the lighting of the ceiling along the external lateral naves is 84 F33 models situated on the capitals of the columns, while 40 F33 lights and 20 F100-66 lights were placed on the 20 window frames.

The technical characteristics of the individual projectors are the following:
Linear Projector LED F33 with a custom designed directional fitting. The system is composed of 16 per 1W Led of which 12 are white and 4 amber. The temperature of the white colour can be controlled in a linear way (3.200 ° K ÷ 5.500 ° K). 16 different types of white can be selected. Made of cast aluminium and steel. Fed by 60-260Vac - Power 16W. Group of pre-wired electronic feeds. Light rotation 360° horizontal, 180° vertical. Class II isolation. Beam opening 40°. Level of protection IP65. Brand ENEC. Measurements in mm. 990m x 78 x 56.

All the lights that have been installed have been calibrated for a light emission of 3180° K (hot light)
The project also envisages the substitution of the old 200W halogen bulbs, which serve as service lights, positioned on the flat part of the window frames.
Special directional Led technology lights, featuring a double Led beam with a 45° opening have been installed.
The technical characteristics of these projectors are the following:
Extensor 2 custom design - Wall or flat surface projector with support for two directional QR111 lamps. Made of steel and die-cast aluminium. Colour Grey and glazed grey chrome. Equipped with two AR 111 LED lamps of 22 W - Colour temperature of the light 3000°K. Fed by constant current transformers 240 V - 24V which are included. Measurements: 58 x 146 x 185 mm.
Particular mention should be made here of the electrical energy consumption aspect of this new installation as compared to that of the old lighting system. The following chart which shows the previous levels of consumption and the future levels, demonstrates clearly the

NEW LIGHTING SYSTEM

economic advantages of the new system:

ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION LED CEILING LIGHT 5.276 Watt
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION LED SERVICE LIGHTS 440 Watt

OLD LIGHTING SYSTEM
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION HALOGEN LIGHTS 26.400 Watt
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION SERVICE LIGHTS 2.000 Watt


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